Difference Between Plant Cell and Animal Cell:: From class 8-9th to senior classes there is always been confusion among students regarding the Difference between the Plant Cell and Animal cell.
Although there are a lot of differences but also many similarities between both of them so it is obvious why students do confuse differentiating these.
If you are one of those students then you are in the right place, Here is a brief explanation about cells and All the differences between them in an easy and simplified way. Read the whole article and get rid out of all the confusion you have. Let’s start with the introduction of Cells.
What is a Cell?
The cell is the structural, Fundamental and Biological unit of life. From life, we refer to all the animals, plants or any other Living organism that exist in this world. It is the smallest unit of life that is why it also called “Building Blocks of life”.
Cells were discovered by Rober Hook in 1665. Being the smallest unit, Cells can only be seen by microscopes. The cell consists of Cytoplasm which is enclosed within the membrane called a Cell membrane. This Cytoplasm contains biomolecules like Nucleic Acids and Proteins etc.
It is found that all organisms contain at least one cell. Those organisms which have only one cell are called Unicellular (Bacteria) and those organisms which have two or more cells are called Multicellular (Animals).
Cells are of two types, the first which contains Nucleus and the second which do not. Those cells which contain Nucleus inside it are called Eukaryotic and those cells which do not have Nucleus are called Prokaryotic.
Both Plant cell and Animal Cell are Eukaryotic means both contain Nucleus so there are a lot of similarities between them. All the Eukaryotic cells generally consist of the Nucleus, Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, mitochondria and ribosomes.
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Difference Between Plant Cell and Animal Cell::
Description of Plant Cells
Plants kingdom consists of plant cells which are Eukaryotic cells means that contains Nucleus. Plants are multicellular living things that are autotrophic in Nature.
There are several organelles found only in the plant cells such as chloroplast, cell wall, plastids and central vacuole. All of these organelles have Their own different functions.
Plant cell contains the rigid cell wall around its cell wall while other organisms contain cell walls around their cells but plant cell contains protein and cellulose.
In size, the range of plant cells varies from 10-100µm. The main function of the plant cells is the process of photosynthesis in plants even the reason behind the green colour of plants is due to the presence of chlorophyll present in the chloroplast of the plant cells.
Types of plant cells and Their functions
Plant cells carry out all the necessary functions for the survival of Plants. Plant cells are categorised into several types which have Their on functions and are explained Below
Collenchyma Cells: Collenchyma cells are elongated and have thick walls. This cell grows and provides structural support to the plants.
Parenchyma Cells: Maximum of the plant cells are parenchyma and structurally the simplest cell. The function of this cell is the storage of organic products.
Sclerenchyma cells: Sclerenchyma cells are more rigid. These cells have very thick walls and are dead. The function of these cells is to support the areas that have ceased growing.
Phloem Cells: the main function of the phloem cell is to transfer the nutrients to all parts of the plants during the process of photosynthesis.
Xylem Cells: the transport of the water and nutrients from the root of the plant to all the parts and leave is done by Xylem cells.
Description of Animal Cells
As per the name, the Animal cell is a type of cell that specifically found in animals. It is a typical eukaryotic cell that has a membrane-bound Nucleus and there is a presence of DNA inside the Nucleus. It is different from the eukaryotic cells of the plants due to the absence of the cell wall in it. They also have organelles and the cellular structure which carries out all the necessary functions for the cell to work properly. These organelles are plasma membrane, mitochondria, lysosomes, nuclear envelope, Nucleus, peroxisomes etc. In size, the range of animal cell varies from 10-30µm.
Types of Animal cells and Their functions
Animal cells carry out all the necessary functions for the survival of Animals. Animal cells are categorised into several types which has Their own functions and are explained below
Skin Cells: Skin cells are found in the dermal and epidermal layer. It works in the prevention of the excess loss of water due to dehydration, in the protection of the internal parts of the body, perception and the transmission of the sensations etc.
Muscle cells: Also known as myocytes, the main function of the muscle cell is in the movement of the body.
Blood cells: also known as Hematopoietic cells, the main function of Blood cell is to carry the hormones and nutrients and to transport throughout the body.
Bone cells: they are responsible for making the bones and skeleton of the body. The main function of the Bone cell is to give structural support and also helps in the movement of the body.
Nerve Cells: they are responsible for sending impulses and information. It helps the body to connect and perform the function in the synchronized order.
Difference Between Plant Cell and Animal Cell
All the Difference between the plant cell and Animal cell is mentioned below on the basis of different categories :
|On Basis of||Plant Cell||Animal cell|
|Definition||A plant cell is the fundamental unit of the plant kingdom.||Animal Cell are the fundamental unit of the Animal kingdom|
|Size and Shape||Varies from 10-100µm and is rectangular shaped.||Varies from 10-30µm and is round and irregular shaped.|
|Cell wall||Have a cell wall that is composed of the cell membrane and cellulose.||Do not have a cell wall composed of a Cell membrane.|
|Plasma membrane||Have a hard/rigid plasma membrane.||Have a thin and flexible plasma membrane.|
|Energy storage||Store energy as starch||Store energy in form of complex carbohydrates and glycogen|
|Nucleus||Lies on one side of the cell.||Lies in the centre of the cell wall|
|Centrosome/centrioles||Are absent in plant cell.||Are present in an animal cell.|
|Plastids||Are present and contains chloroplast||Are absent in an animal cell.|
|Nutrients synthesis||Able to synthesise all the amino acids, vitamins and coenzymes.||Unable to synthesise any nutrients.|
|Hypotonic or Hypertonic solutions||Do not burst if placed in a hypotonic solution.||Do not have cell wall so burst in Hypertonic solution.|
|Lysosomes||Are rarely present in plants.||Are present in animals.|
|Cytoplasm||It is present in plants.||Also present in animals.|
|Vacuoles||Vacuoles in plants are very large and responsible for structural support, waste disposal and protection.||Vacuoles in animals are generally small.|
|Cilia||Are not present in a plant cell.||Are present in animal cells|
|Mitochondria||Are present but very few in number.||Are present in a large amount.|
|Growth||Vacuoles absorb more water into the central vacuole and increase the size of the cell and become larger.||Increase in size by increasing the cell numbers.|
Above we discussed all the important points Difference Between Plant Cell and Animal Cell. There are so many similarities between both of them due to the presence of the eukaryotic cells in both that is why it is a bit hard to distinguish.
We mentioned all the key points to the Difference Between Plant Cell and Animal Cell. Plants and animals are evolved differently in obtaining energy therefore Their cells are also different.
Also, plants are autotrophs and animals are heterotrophs in nature so it gives us few other points to distinguish between them. We hope it is totally clear to you all, Enjoy learning.